Communication strategy use of EFL learners in videoconferencing, virtual world and face-to-face environments

Nazll Ceren Cirit-Işlkllgil, Randall W. Sadler, Elif Arlca-Akkök

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the communication strategy (CS) use of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in videoconferencing (VC), virtual world (VW), and face-to-face environments. The study was conducted with 30 senior Turkish undergraduate EFL students. The data were collected via video and audio recordings of three opinion-exchange tasks, a background and post-task questionnaire, and an interview that includes a retrospective think-aloud protocol. The participants worked in groups of five to complete the opinion-exchange tasks in each of the three environments. The findings indicated that the participants made use of a wide range of CSs, and although some of the CSs differed, mostly the same types were employed in all the environments. However, the results revealed that the frequency of CSs showed variance among environments, with the highest number in the VC environment and the lowest in the VW. It was possible to establish a connection between the differences in the frequency and the types of strategy use with the distinctive features of the environments, the proficiency level of the participants, and the type of the tasks that was utilized. Additively, 10 new strategy types were discovered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)122-138
Number of pages17
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 27 2023


  • English as a foreign language
  • communication strategy
  • computer-mediated communication
  • videoconferencing
  • virtual world

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Computer Science Applications


Dive into the research topics of 'Communication strategy use of EFL learners in videoconferencing, virtual world and face-to-face environments'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this