The consumption of diets containing 5 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily is the foundation of public health recommendations for cancer prevention, yet this concept has not been tested in experimental models of prostate cancer. We evaluated combinations of tomato and broccoli in the Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinoma model. Male Copenhagen rats (n = 206) were fed diets containing 10% tomato, 10% broccoli, 5% tomato plus 5% broccoli (5:5 combination), 10% tomato plus 10% broccoli (10:10 combination) powders, or lycopene (23 or 224 nmol/g diet) for ∼22 weeks starting 1 month prior to receiving s.c. tumor implants. We compared the effects of diet to surgical castration (2 weeks before termination) or finasteride (5 mg/kg body weight orally, 6 d/wk). Castration reduced prostate weights, tumor areas, and tumor weight (62%, P < 0.001), whereas finasteride reduced prostate weights (P < 0.0001), but had no effect on tumor area or weight. Lycopene at 23 or 224 nmol/g of the diet insignificantly reduced tumor weights by 7% or 18%, respectively, whereas tomato reduced tumor weight by 34% (P < 0.05). Broccoli decreased tumor weights by 42% (P < 0.01) whereas the 10:10 combination caused a 52% decrease (P < 0.001). Tumor growth reductions were associated with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis, as quantified by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and the ApopTag assay. The combination of tomato and broccoli was more effective at slowing tumor growth than either tomato or broccoli alone and supports the public health recommendations to increase the intake of a variety of plant components.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research