College Student Responses to Web and Paper Surveys: Does Mode Matter?+

Robert M. Carini, John C. Hayek, George D. Kuh, John M. Kennedy, Judith A. Ouimet

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


We examined the responses of 58,288 college students to 8 scales involving 53 items from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) to gauge whether individuals respond differently to surveys administered via the Web and paper. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that mode effects were generally small. However, students who completed the Web-based survey responded more favorably than paper on all 8 scales. These patterns generally held for both women and men, and younger and older students. Interestingly, the largest effect was found for a scale of items involving computing and information technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalResearch in Higher Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • NSSE
  • Student engagement
  • Survey mode
  • Web survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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