Cody complex lithic assemblages from northern Wisconsin support the assertion that the first hunter- gather populations to colonize this early postglacial landscape were highly mobile. The distribution of specific lithic raw materials implies that these late Paleoindian groups exploited an area extending from northeast Minnesota to central Wisconsin. Analysis of collections from the Forks View site in Calumet Co., WI helps elucidate the behavior of groups at the southern end of this range. When combined with material from other nearby surface collections, the Forks View assemblage provides a robust sample with both early (Clovis, Folsom/Midland) and late Paleoindian components (Cody, Agate Basin, Dalton, Alberta, Hell Gap), as well as younger Archaic and Woodland material. Documenting these lithic assemblages is a crucial step toward answering questions about diachronic changes in hunter-gatherer mobility before and after the entrance of Cody complex foragers into the region. The Paleoindian/Archaic transition marks a dramatic shift in residential mobility and toolstone utilization. Paleoindian assemblages in the sample are dominated by exotic, high quality raw materials, average transport distances routinely exceed 200 km, and toolkit composition reflects a reliance on long-distance residential movement. In contrast, Archaic and Woodland assemblages are composed almost entirely of local raw materials.
|Published - 2014