Classification of simple and complex sugar adulterants in honey by mid-infrared spectroscopy

Sakhamuri Sivakesava, Joseph Irudayaraj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Adulteration of honey with sugars is the most crucial quality assurance concern to the honey industry. The application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a screening tool for the determination of the type of sugar adulterant in honey was investigated. Spectra of honey adulterated with simple and complex sugars were recorded in the mid-infrared range using the attenuated total reflectance accessory of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Adulterants considered were sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and invert sugars (cane invert and beet invert). Predictive models were developed to classify the adulterated honey samples using discriminant analysis. Spectral data were compressed using principal component analysis and partial least-square methods. Linear discriminant analysis was used to discriminate the type of adulterant in three different honey varieties. An optimum classification of 100% was achieved for honey samples adulterated with glucose, fructose, sucrose and beet and cane invert sugars. Results demonstrated that discriminant analysis of the spectra of adulterated honey samples could be used for rapid detection of adulteration in honey.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)351-360
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Food Science and Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Beet invert sugar
  • Cane invert sugar
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
  • Linear discriminant analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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