Classification for carotid artery stenting complications: Manifestation, management, and prevention

Antonino Nicosia, Dimitrios Nikas, Fausto Castriota, Giancarlo Biamino, Piergiorgio Cao, Alberto Cremonesi, Klaus Mathias, Issam Moussa, L. Nelson Hopkins, Carlo Setacci, Horst Sievert, Bernhard Reimers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Carotid artery stenting is a rapidly evolving method for treating carotid artery disease. Various intraprocedural and postprocedural complications have been reported in the literature. However, the absence of a unified classification scheme for these complications makes it difficult, if not impossible, to study their precise incidence, predictors, and management. The aim of this article is to propose the first joint classification of periprocedural complications, to analyze their incidence and etiology, and suggest possible ways to manage and prevent them. This classification is intended to be used as a common platform for prompt recognition, evaluation, treatment, and universal study of the complications during carotid stenting procedures. For this purpose, the opinions of the major experts on carotid interventions worldwide were merged with all the available information reported in the English-language literature to present as accurately as possible the management and prevention of carotid stenting complications according to this proposed classification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-294
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Endovascular Therapy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Balloon angioplasty
  • Carotid artery disease
  • Carotid artery stenting
  • Cerebral protection device
  • Complications
  • Contrast encephalopathy
  • Dissection
  • Extracranial carotid artery
  • Filling defect
  • Filter entrapment
  • Hyperperfusion syndrome
  • Intracranial carotid artery
  • Kinking
  • Macroembolization
  • Microembolization
  • Plaque prolapse
  • Spasm
  • Stent
  • Stent thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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