Class Bivalvia

Kevin S. Cummings, Daniel L. Graf

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Two native groups represent the freshwater bivalves of North America: the freshwater mussels (Unionoidea) and the pill, fingernail, and pea clams (Sphaeriidae). There are also two widely publicized invasive genera, Corbicula and Dreissena. These mollusks have interesting and important ecological interactions with their environments, not the least of which is their relationship to humans. The bias of this chapter is toward the freshwater mussels. They are the numerically dominant group, with 10 times more species, and considerably more data are available on them. This chapter covers general biology, including internal and external anatomy, physiology, and reproduction. General ecology is discussed, including life-cycles, age and growth, and biotic interactions. The role of freshwater biovalves as biomonitors is reviewed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationThorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates
Subtitle of host publicationEcology and General Biology: Fourth Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages84
ISBN (Electronic)9780123850270
ISBN (Print)9780123850263
StatePublished - 2015


  • Biomonitor
  • Biotic interaction
  • Broadcasting
  • Conchology
  • Conglutinate
  • Corbicula
  • Double uniparental inheritance (DUI)
  • Dreissena
  • Ecosystem processes
  • Sphaeriidae
  • Unionoidea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General Environmental Science


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