Citrus flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3β enzymatic activity by lowering the interaction energy within the binding cavity

Jodee L. Johnson, Sanjeewa G. Rupasinghe, Felicia Stefani, Mary A. Schuler, Elvira Gonzalez De Mejia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Pancreatic cancer studies have shown that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) leads to decreased cancer cell proliferation and survival by abrogating nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activity. In this investigation, various citrus compounds, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, and limonoids, were individually investigated for their inhibitory effects on GSK-3β by using a luminescence assay. Of the 22 citrus compounds tested, the flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin had the highest inhibitory effects on GSK-3β, with 50% inhibitory values of 1.5, 1.9, and 2.0μM, respectively. Molecular dockings were then performed to determine the potential interactions of each citrus flavonoid with GSK-3β. Luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin were predicted to fit within the binding pocket of GSK-3β with low interaction energies (-76.4, -76.1, and -84.6kcalmol-1, respectively) and low complex energies (-718.1, -688.1, and -719.7kcalmol -1, respectively). Our results indicate that several citrus flavonoids inhibit GSK-3β activity and suggest that these have potential to suppress the growth of pancreatic tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-333
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of medicinal food
Volume14
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2011

Keywords

  • GSK-3β
  • Glycogen synthase kinase-3β
  • citrus compounds
  • flavonoids
  • luminescence assay
  • molecular docking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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