Chronic exposure of a freshwater mussel to elevated pCO2: Effects on the control of biomineralization and ion-regulatory responses

Jennifer D. Jeffrey, Kelly D. Hannan, Caleb T. Hasler, Cory D. Suski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Freshwater mussels may be exposed to elevations in mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a 28-d elevation in pCO2 at 15 000 and 50 000 μatm on processes associated with biomineralization, ion regulation, and cellular stress in adult Lampsilis siliquoidea (Barnes, 1823). In addition, the capacity for mussels to compensate for acid-base disturbances experienced after exposure to elevated pCO2 was assessed over a 14-d recovery period. Overall, exposure to 50 000 μatm pCO2 had more pronounced physiological consequences compared with 15 000 μatm pCO2. Over the first 7 d of exposure to 50 000 μatm pCO2, the mRNA abundance of chitin synthase (cs), calmodulin (cam), and calmodulin-like protein (calp) were significantly affected, suggesting that shell formation and integrity may be altered during pCO2 exposure. After the removal of the pCO2 treatment, mussels may compensate for the acid-base and ion disturbances experienced during pCO2 exposure, and transcript levels of some regulators of biomineralization (carbonic anhydrase [ca], cs, cam, calp) as well as ion regulation (na+-k+-ATPase [nka]) were modulated. Effects of elevated pCO2 on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were limited in the present study. Overall, adult L. siliquoidea appeared to regulate factors associated with the control of biomineralization and ion regulation during and/or after the removal of pCO2 exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:538–550.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)538-550
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018


  • Benthic macroinvertebrates
  • Calmodulin
  • Chitin synthase
  • Freshwater toxicology
  • Mollusk toxicology
  • Na-K-ATPase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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