Chromatin Assembly Enhances Binding to the CYP2B1 Phenobarbital-responsive Unit (PBRU) of Nuclear Factor-1, which Binds Simultaneously with Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR)/Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) and Enhances CAR/RXR-mediated Activation of the PBRU

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Abstract

Phenobarbital induction of CYP2B genes is mediated by a complex phenobarbital-responsive enhancer (PBRU), which contains a binding site for nuclear factor-1 (NF-1) flanked by two DR-4 nuclear receptor (NR) binding sites for a heterodimer of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). To examine potential interactions between NF-1 and CAR/ RXR, binding of purified recombinant proteins to DNA, or to chromatin assembled using Drosophila embryo extract, was examined. NF-1 and CAR/RXR bound simultaneously and independently to the overlapping NF-1 and NR-1 sites; binding of CAR/RXR to the NR-2 site was modestly increased by NF-1 binding; and CAR/RXR bound to a new site in the PBRU region, designated NR-3. Assembly of plasmid DNA into chromatin using Drosophila extract resulted in linearly phased nucleosomes in the PBRU region. The apparent binding affinity of NF-1 was increased by about 10-fold in assembled chromatin compared with DNA, whereas CAR/RXR binding was decreased. As observed for DNA, however, simultaneous, largely independent, binding to the NF-1 and NR sites was observed. CAR-mediated transactivation of the PBRU in cultured cells of hepatic origin was inhibited by mutations in the NF-1 site, and overexpression of NF-1 increased CAR transactivation in HepG2 cells. These studies demonstrate that NF-1 and CAR/ RXR can both bind to the PBRU at the same time and that chromatin assembly increases NF-1 binding, which is consistent with previous in vivo footprinting studies in which the NF-1 site was occupied in untreated animals and the NF-1 and flanking NR sites were occupied after phenobarbital treatment. CAR-mediated trans-activation of the PBRU was increased by NF-1, analogous to NF-1 effects on phenobarbital induction in previous transient transfection studies and consistent with mediation of phenobarbital induction by CAR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7559-7567
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume276
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 9 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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