Choline supply during negative nutrient balance alters hepatic cystathionine β-synthase, intermediates of the methionine cycle and transsulfuration pathway, and liver function in Holstein cows

D. N. Coleman, A. Alharthi, V. Lopreiato, E. Trevisi, M. Miura, Y. X. Pan, J. J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Although choline requirements for cows are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol and increase flux through the Met cycle to improve immunometabolic status during a negative nutrient balance (NNB). Our objectives were to investigate the effects of postruminal choline supply during a feed restriction–induced NNB on (1) hepatic activity cystathionine β-synthase and transcription of enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway and Met cycle; (2) hepatic metabolites in the Met cycle and the transsulfuration pathway, bile acids, and energy metabolism; and 3) plasma biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± 24 d postpartum) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 4-d treatment periods and 10 d of recovery (14 d/period). Treatments were unrestricted intake with abomasal infusion of water, restricted intake (R; 60% of net energy for lactation requirements) with abomasal infusion of water, or R plus abomasal infusion of 6.25, 12.5, or 25 g/d choline ion. Liver tissue was collected on d 5 after infusions ended, and blood was collected on d 1, 3, and 5. Statistical contrasts were A0 versus R0 (CONT1), R versus the average of choline doses (CONT2), and tests of linear and quadratic effects of choline dose. Activity of cystathionine β-synthase was lower with R (CONT1) and decreased linearly with choline. Hepatic glutathione was not different with R or choline, but taurine tended to be greater with choline (CONT2). Betaine and carnitine were greater with R (CONT1) and further increased with choline (CONT2). Concentrations of NAD+ were greater with choline (CONT2). Cholic and glycol-chenodeoxycholic acids were decreased by R and choline, while taurocholic and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acids were not altered. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were greater with R (CONT1) but decreased with choline (CONT2). Paraoxonase was lower with R and increased with choline (CONT2). Data suggest that enhanced supply of choline during NNB decreases entry of homocysteine to the transsulfuration pathway, potentially favoring remethylation to Met by acquiring a methyl group from betaine. As such, Met may provide methyl groups for synthesis of carnitine. Along with production data indicating that 12.5 g/d choline ion improved milk yield and liver fatty acid metabolism during NNB, the changes in blood biomarkers also suggest a beneficial effect of choline supply on liver function and oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8319-8331
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume102
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2019

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Cystathionine
5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase
cystathionine
nutrient balance
liver function
choline
Choline
methionine
Holstein
cows
Food
liver
Liver
chenodeoxycholic acid
Chenodeoxycholic Acid
Betaine
Carnitine
carnitine
betaine
biomarkers

Keywords

  • 1-carbon metabolism
  • lactation
  • methyl donors
  • oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Choline supply during negative nutrient balance alters hepatic cystathionine β-synthase, intermediates of the methionine cycle and transsulfuration pathway, and liver function in Holstein cows. / Coleman, D. N.; Alharthi, A.; Lopreiato, V.; Trevisi, E.; Miura, M.; Pan, Y. X.; Loor, J. J.

In: Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 102, No. 9, 09.2019, p. 8319-8331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Although choline requirements for cows are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol and increase flux through the Met cycle to improve immunometabolic status during a negative nutrient balance (NNB). Our objectives were to investigate the effects of postruminal choline supply during a feed restriction–induced NNB on (1) hepatic activity cystathionine β-synthase and transcription of enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway and Met cycle; (2) hepatic metabolites in the Met cycle and the transsulfuration pathway, bile acids, and energy metabolism; and 3) plasma biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± 24 d postpartum) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 4-d treatment periods and 10 d of recovery (14 d/period). Treatments were unrestricted intake with abomasal infusion of water, restricted intake (R; 60{\%} of net energy for lactation requirements) with abomasal infusion of water, or R plus abomasal infusion of 6.25, 12.5, or 25 g/d choline ion. Liver tissue was collected on d 5 after infusions ended, and blood was collected on d 1, 3, and 5. Statistical contrasts were A0 versus R0 (CONT1), R versus the average of choline doses (CONT2), and tests of linear and quadratic effects of choline dose. Activity of cystathionine β-synthase was lower with R (CONT1) and decreased linearly with choline. Hepatic glutathione was not different with R or choline, but taurine tended to be greater with choline (CONT2). Betaine and carnitine were greater with R (CONT1) and further increased with choline (CONT2). Concentrations of NAD+ were greater with choline (CONT2). Cholic and glycol-chenodeoxycholic acids were decreased by R and choline, while taurocholic and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acids were not altered. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were greater with R (CONT1) but decreased with choline (CONT2). Paraoxonase was lower with R and increased with choline (CONT2). Data suggest that enhanced supply of choline during NNB decreases entry of homocysteine to the transsulfuration pathway, potentially favoring remethylation to Met by acquiring a methyl group from betaine. As such, Met may provide methyl groups for synthesis of carnitine. Along with production data indicating that 12.5 g/d choline ion improved milk yield and liver fatty acid metabolism during NNB, the changes in blood biomarkers also suggest a beneficial effect of choline supply on liver function and oxidative stress.",
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AU - Alharthi, A.

AU - Lopreiato, V.

AU - Trevisi, E.

AU - Miura, M.

AU - Pan, Y. X.

AU - Loor, J. J.

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KW - 1-carbon metabolism

KW - lactation

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