Chemicals and menopause: Effects on age at menopause and on health status in the postmenopausal period

Ellen K. Silbergeld, Jodi A. Flaws

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Menopause, a natural stage in women's lives, signals the cessation of fertility and causes changes in health status for many women. Chemical exposures may induce early or premature menopause and increase the risks of morbidity and mortality in the postmenopausal period. Chemicals that are toxic to follicles can lower the age of menopause by depleting the ovary of oocytes. Women may be exposed to these chemicals in the workplace, at home, and through exposure to contaminated drinking water near hazardous waste sites, as well as by direct or indirect exposure to cigarette smoke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)227-234
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Women's Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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