Chemical composition of copra, palm kernel, and cashew co-products from South-East Asia and almond hulls from Australia

Natalia S. Fanelli, Leidy J. Torres-Mendoza, Jerubella J. Abelilla, Hans H. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Oilseeds and nut co-products can be used as alternative feed ingredients in animal diets because they may have a lower cost than traditional ingredients. A study was, therefore, conducted to determine the chemical composition of copra, palm kernel, and nut coproducts from South-East Asia or Australia. The hypothesis that country of production influences nutritional composition was tested. Methods: Oilseed meals included 2 copra expellers, 3 copra meals, and 12 palm kernel expellers. One source of almond hulls and cashew nut meal were also used. Samples were obtained from suppliers located in South-East Asia or Australia. All samples were analyzed for dry matter, gross energy, nitrogen, amino acids (AA), acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE), ash, minerals, insoluble dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber. Copra and nut coproducts were also analyzed for total starch and sugars. Results: Copra expellers had greater (p<0.05) concentrations of dry matter and AEE compared with copra meal. However, copra meal had greater (p<0.05) concentrations of total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) and copper than copra expellers. Palm kernel expellers from Indonesia had greater (p<0.05) concentration of histidine and tyrosine compared with palm kernel expellers from Vietnam. Almond hulls was high in dietary fiber, but also contained free glucose and fructose, whereas cashew nut meal was high in AEE, but low in all free sugars. Conclusion: Copra expellers have greater concentration of AEE, but less concentration of total dietary fiber when compared with copra meal, and except for a few AA, no differences in nutrient composition of palm kernel expellers produced in Indonesia or Vietnam were detected. According to the chemical composition of nut co-products, cashew nut meal may be more suitable for non-ruminant diets than almond hulls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)768-775
Number of pages8
JournalAnimal Bioscience
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Almond Hulls
  • Alternative Feed Ingredient
  • Cashew Nut
  • Chemical Composition
  • Copra
  • Palm Kernel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Genetics
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Physiology
  • General Veterinary


Dive into the research topics of 'Chemical composition of copra, palm kernel, and cashew co-products from South-East Asia and almond hulls from Australia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this