Monitoring dissolved organic matter (DOM) content in aquatic environments is crucial for not only understanding the dynamics of heavy metals but also predicting their bioavailability. Fluorescence spectroscopy is typically employed to characterise DOM. Here, the interaction between DOM and trace metals was investigated by combining excitation–emission matrix (EEM) quenching with two-dimensional Savitzky–Golay second-order differentiation (2D-SG-2nd-df) analysis. The 2D-SG-2nd-df analysis decomposed the EEM spectra of commercial humic acid (HA) samples into six separate fluorescence peaks, which agreed with the results obtained through conventional parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. Compared with PARAFAC modeling, the 2D-SG-2nd-df approach provided more valid and reliable results when the dataset contained distinct samples. Moreover, since the results obtained from 2D-SG-2nd-df for each sample are independent, shifts in the peak wavelength can be reproduced more efficiently using this method. Triplicate titration experiments showed clear differences in HA–copper interactions for samples with different HA composition and molecular weight. The binding strength between copper and low-molecular-weight DOM in water was weaker than that observed for high-molecular-weight DOM. The results obtained in this study will serve as a basis for applying 2D-SG-2nd-df not only to DOM but also to other samples studied using EEM measurements.
- Humic acid
- Two-dimensional Savitzky–Golay second-order differentiation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis