Characterization of transient particle loads during lithium experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

V. Surla, M. A. Jaworski, V. Soukhanovskii, T. K. Gray, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, H. Kugel, A. McLean, D. N. Ruzic, F. Scotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Transient events such as Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) or disruptions can lead to large particle and power loads on the divertor plates of tokamak experiments. These events can cause significant erosion and are detrimental to the lifetime of the plasma facing components. Understanding the impact of ELMs remains a complex problem and a major challenge. In this study, an effort is made to characterize these ELMs and other transients based on their characteristics using a particle flux probe and surface temperature measurements from a dual-band IR camera. Typically, the temporal evolution of an ELM from the particle flux probe is characterized by a steep rise and a gradual decrease of current signal. This burst like structure is seen by the Langmuir probes as a rise in the ion saturation current with a width of a few milliseconds. This study entails gathering statistics of typical ELM-like events for various shots in order to assess the typical loading of ELMs on the Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) that was installed in the FY10 run campaign. Later, the power deposition profiles during ELMs are also characterized from IR camera measurements for certain discharges to find that only 15% of the energy flux arrives at the divertor target before the surface temperature reached its maximum value. Finally, a correlation was found between the particle flux from the probes during the ELMs and the neutral particle flux from D α signal indicating the utility of the particle flux probe as a means to characterize ELMs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1794-1800
Number of pages7
JournalFusion Engineering and Design
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • Divertor materials
  • Edge localized modes (ELMs)
  • First wall material
  • Langmuir probe
  • Liquid metal
  • Lithium
  • Particle and power deposition profiles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterization of transient particle loads during lithium experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this