The Amphiprion (anemonefish or clownfish) family of teleost fish, which is not a common model species, exhibits multiple unique characteristics, including social control of body size and protandrous sex change. The social changes in sex and body size are modulated by neuropeptide signaling pathways. These neuropeptides are formed from complex processing from larger prohormone proteins; understanding the neuropeptide complement requires information on complete prohormones sequences. Genome and transcriptome information within and across 22 teleost fish species, including 11 Amphiprion species, were assembled and integrated to achieve the first comprehensive survey of their prohormone genes. This information enabled the identification of 175 prohormone isoforms from 159 prohormone proteins across all species. This included identification of 9 CART prepropeptide genes and the loss of insulin-like 5B and tachykinin precursor 1B genes in Pomacentridae species. Transcriptome assemblies generally detected most prohormone genes but provided fewer prohormone genes than genome assemblies due to the lack of expression of prohormone genes or specific isoforms and tissue sampled. Comparisons between duplicate genes indicated that subfunctionalization, degradation, and neofunctionalization may be occurring between all copies. Characterization of the prohormone complement lays the foundation for future peptidomic investigation of the molecular basis of social physiology and behavior in the teleost fish.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0228562
JournalPloS one
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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