Characterization of Sugar Reduction in Model Confectionary Gels Using Descriptive Analysis

Elle McKenzie, Youngsoo Lee, Soo-Yeun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Successful sugar reduction in food products mimics the sensory and functional properties of the full sugar counterpart. The initial step of sugar reduction is to determine how the absence of sugar affects these properties. Descriptive analysis was conducted on four gel types (gelatin, ι- carrageenan, κ-carrageenan, and konjac glucomannan) and a range of sugar concentrations from 0–20% w/v to create a sensory profile of model confectionary gels for comparison to instrumental texture profile analysis data. The sensory descriptive data were analyzed using analysis of variance and principal component analysis. Correlation analysis, cluster analysis, and partial least squares regression (PLS-R) were used to compare and correlate sensory and instrumental data. Regardless of sugar concentration, sensory analysis primarily clustered samples by gelling agent type, such as in the case of konjac glucomannan consistently being characterized as chewy. Cohesion and gumminess were correlated highly with melt-in-mouth and a jiggly texture, while adhesion and fracturability were negatively correlated. In the PLS-R samples biplot, gelatin and iota carrageenan samples were located near these attributes indicating their aptness as descriptors. In conclusion, descriptive analysis provided a more discriminating method for characterizing model confectionary gels.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number644
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 11 2022


  • descriptive analysis
  • sugar reduction
  • gelatin
  • carrageenan
  • konjac glucomannan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Biomaterials
  • Organic Chemistry


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