Characterization of substances released from crumb rubber material used on artificial turf fields

Xiaolin Li, William Berger, Craig Musante, MaryJane Incorvia Mattina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Crumb rubber material (CRM) used as infill on artificial turf fields can be the source of a variety of substances released to the environment and to living organisms in the vicinity of the CRM. To assess potential risks of major volatilized and leached substances derived from CRM, methods were developed to identify organic compounds and elements, either in the vapor phase and/or the leachate from CRM. A qualitative method based on solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed to identify the major volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds out-gassing from CRM samples under defined laboratory conditions. Direct vapor phase injection into the GC–MS was applied for the quantitative analysis. Ten organic compounds were identified in the vapor phase by the SPME method. Volatile benzothiazole (BT) was detected at the highest level in all commercial CRM samples, in the range 8.2–69 ng g−1 CRM. Other volatile PAHs and antioxidants were quantified in the vapor phase as well. A decrease of volatile compounds was noted in the headspace over CRM samples from 2-years-old fields when compared with the virgin CRM used at installation. An outdoor experiment under natural weathering conditions showed a significant reduction of out-gassing organic compounds from the CRM in the first 14 d; thereafter, values remained consistent up to 70 d of observation. Zinc was the most abundant element in the acidified leachate (220–13 000 μg g−1), while leachable BT was detected at relatively low amounts.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-285
Number of pages7
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2010


  • ISTC
  • SPME
  • Benzothiazole
  • PAH
  • Volatile compounds
  • Antioxidant
  • CRM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


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