Five strains were isolated which form a physiologically and phylogenetically coherent group of chlororespiring microorganisms and represent the first taxon in the Myxobacteria capable of anaerobic growth. The strains were enriched and isolated from various soils and sediments based on their ability to grow using acetate as an electron donor and 2-chlorophenol (2-CPh) as an electron acceptor. They are slender gram-negative rods with a bright red pigmentation that exhibit gliding motility and form spore-like structures. These unique chlororespiring myxobacteria also grow with 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,5-bromophenol, nitrate, fumarate, and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors, with optimal growth occurring at low concentrations (< 1 mM) of electron acceptor. 2-CPh is reduced by all strains as an electron acceptor in preference to nitrate, which is reduced to ammonium. Acetate, H2, succinate, pyruvate, formate, and lactate were used as electron donors. None of the strains grew by fermentation. The 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences of the five strains form a coherent cluster deeply branching within the family Myxococcaceae within the class Myxobacteria and are mostly closely associated with the Myxococcus subgroup. With the exception of anaerobic growth and lack of a characteristic fruiting body, these strains closely resemble previously characterized myxobacteria and therefore should be considered part of the Myxococcus subgroup. The anaerobic growth and 9.0% difference in 16S rDNA sequence from those of other myxobacterial genera are sufficient to place these strains in a new genus and species designated Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans. The type strain is 2CP-1 (ATCC BAA-258).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology