Characterization and Control of Residual Stress and Curvature in Anodically Bonded Devices and Substrates with Etched Features

R. A. Inzinga, T. W. Lin, M. Yadav, H. T. Johnson, G. P. Horn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

While anodic bonding is commonly used in a variety of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, devices and substrates that incorporate this processing technique are often subjected to significant residual stress and curvature that create post-processing and reliability issues. Here, using an anisothermal anodic bonding procedure, residual stresses and the resulting wafer curvature in these structures are controlled by varying the initial bond temperatures of the silicon and Pyrex wafers independently. Residual stresses are quantified by measuring bulk wafer curvature and, locally, stress concentrations are measured using infrared photoelasticity accompanied by 3-D thermomechanical finite element analysis. Based on the good agreement between numerical predictions and experimental results, this process can be used to determine the bulk post-bond wafer curvature and to reduce the likelihood of structural failure at these sites, by changing the residual stresses from tensile in nature, which may drive initiation and growth of cracks, to compressive, which can suppress such failures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)637-648
Number of pages12
JournalExperimental Mechanics
Volume52
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2012

Keywords

  • Anodic bonding
  • Infrared photoelastic stress analysis
  • MEMS
  • Residual stress
  • Silicon inspection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Aerospace Engineering

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