Characteristics of older adults with self-reported stooping, crouching, or kneeling difficulty

Manuel E. Hernandez, Susan L. Murphy, Neil B. Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Stooping, crouching, and kneeling (SCK) are fundamental components of daily living tasks, and nearly a quarter of older adults report a lot of difficulty or inability to perform these movements. This study examined characteristics associated with SCK difficulty to explore underlying mechanisms and remediation strategies. Methods. One hundred eighty-four older adults with no, low, or high SCK difficulty underwent a comprehensive laboratory visit at the University of Michigan. Results. Twenty-one percent of participants (n = 39) reported a lot of difficulty or inability to stoop, crouch, or kneel. Characteristics independently associated with increasing SCK difficulty were self-reported leg joint limitations, (odds ratio [OR] = 3.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64-9.01), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale score (OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99), and knee extension strength (OR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94). Conclusions. Increasing SCK difficulty is associated with balance confidence as well as leg limitations. Remediation of SCK difficulty will likely require a program that encompasses both behavioral and physical issues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)759-763
Number of pages5
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Crouching difficulty
  • Kneeling difficulty
  • Stooping difficulty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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