Characteristic Mode and Reduced Order Modeling at Low Frequencies

Qi I. Dai, Hui U.I. Gan, Qin S. Liu, Weng Cho Chew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a stabilized theory to address the breakdown or inaccuracy issue for low-frequency (LF) characteristic mode analysis (CMA). At LFs, to properly preserve the governing quasi-static circuit physics, the eigenvalue decomposition technique is leveraged to formulate a stabilized eigenvalue problem regarding low-order CMs, which dominate the scattering, radiation, and energy storage properties of arbitrarily shaped conducting bodies. Several efficient schemes are introduced for the computation of the low-order CMs in the LF regime, including the augmented electric-field integral equation, the potential (A - Φ)-based integral equation, and the Calderón multiplicative preconditioner. The LF stabilized CMA enables one to understand and interpret the behaviors of complicated conducting objects with a reduced "modal" representation at LFs, which offers an insightful tool for reduced order modeling in circuit design and analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7864409
Pages (from-to)669-677
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017


  • Admittance extraction
  • characteristic mode analysis (CMA)
  • eigenvalue decomposition (EVD)
  • low frequency (LF)
  • reduced order modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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