Challenges of relaxed n -type GaP on Si and strategies to enable low threading dislocation density

Ryan D. Hool, Yukun Sun, Brian D. Li, Pankul Dhingra, Rachel W. Tham, Shizhao Fan, Minjoo Larry Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We directly show that doping type strongly affects the threading dislocation density (TDD) of relaxed GaP on Si, with n-type GaP having a TDD of ∼3.1 × 107 cm-2, nearly 30× higher than both p-type and unintentionally doped GaP at ∼1.1 × 106 cm-2. Such a high TDD is undesirable since n-GaP on Si serves as the starting point for the growth of epitaxial III-V/Si multi-junction solar cells. After highlighting additional challenges for highly n-doped GaP on Si including increased surface roughness, anisotropic strain relaxation, and inhomogeneous TDD distributions from blocking of the dislocation glide, we go on to show that the TDD of n-GaP on Si rises by 10× as the doping concentration increases from ∼5 × 1016 to ∼2 × 1018 cm-3. Next, we investigate the effects of additional dopant choices on the TDD, determining that electronic effects dominate over solute effects on the dislocation velocity at these concentrations. Finally, we demonstrate the respective roles of compressively strained superlattices, low-temperature initiation, and lowered n-type doping concentration on reducing the TDD for n-GaP on Si. By combining all three, we attain relaxed n-GaP on Si with a TDD of 1.54(±0.20) × 106 cm-2, approaching parity with p-GaP on Si. Such high-quality n-GaP on Si will play an important role in boosting the efficiency of epitaxial III-V/Si multi-junction solar cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number243104
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 28 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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