Certain vertebrates are capable of regenerating parts of the eye, including the lens. Depending on the species, two principal forms of in vivo lens regeneration have been described wherein the new lens arises from either the pigmented epithelium of the dorsal iris or the cornea epithelium. These forms of lens regeneration are triggered by retinal factors present in the eye. Studies have begun to illuminate the nature of the signals that support lens regeneration. This review describes evidence for the involvement of specific signaling pathways in lens regeneration, including the FGF, retinoic acid, TGF-beta, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways.