Causality violations in realistic simulations of heavy-ion collisions

Christopher Plumberg, Dekrayat Almaalol, Travis Dore, Jorge Noronha, Jacquelyn Noronha-Hostler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Causality is violated in the early stages of state-of-the-art heavy-ion hydrodynamic simulations. Such violations are present in up to 75% of the fluid cells in the initial time and only after 2-3 fm/c of evolution do we find that 50% of the fluid cells are definitely causal. Superluminal propagation reaches up to 15% the speed of light in some of the fluid cells. The inclusion of pre-equilibrium evolution significantly reduces the number of acausal cells. Our findings suggests that relativistic causality may place constraints on the available parameter space of heavy-ion collision simulations when factored into more thorough statistical analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL061901
JournalPhysical Review C
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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