Categorical regression analysis of acute exposure to tetrachloroethylene

Daniel J. Guth, Raymond J. Carroll, Douglas G. Simpson, Haibo Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Exposure-response analysis of acute noncancer risks should consider both concentration (C) and duration (T) of exposure, as well as severity of response. Stratified categorical regression is a form of meta-analysis that addresses these needs by combining studies and analyzing response data expressed as ordinal severity categories. A generalized linear model for ordinal data was used to estimate the probability of response associated with exposure and severity category. Stratification of the regression model addresses systematic differences among studies by allowing one or more model parameters to vary across strata defined, for example, by species and sex. The ability to treat partial information addresses the difficulties in assigning consistent severity scores. Studies containing information on acute effects of tetrachloroethylene in rats, mice, and humans were analyzed. The mouse data were highly uncertain due to lack of data on effects of low concentrations and were excluded from the analysis. A model with species- specific concentration intercept terms for rat and human central nervous system data improved fit to the data compared with the base model (combined species). More complex models with strata defined by sex and species did not improve the fit. The stratified regression model allows human effect levels to be identified more confidently by basing the intercept on human data and the slope parameters on the combined data (on a C x T plot). This analysis provides an exposure-response function for acute exposures to tetrachloroethylene using categorical regression analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-332
Number of pages12
JournalRisk Analysis
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1997


  • Acute exposures
  • Categorical regression
  • Severity
  • Tetrachloroethylene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Physiology (medical)


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