Canopy cover and drought influence the landscape epidemiology of an amphibian chytrid fungus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally distributed fungal pathogen of amphibians that has caused amphibian population declines. Prevalence and infection intensity of Bd should vary spatially across heterogeneous landscapes because survival of the pathogen depends on environmental conditions including humidity and temperature. Wetland temperatures should vary with forest canopy cover, but few studies have examined the relationship between Bd prevalence and canopy cover. We sampled anurans for Bd at 33 wetlands in Illinois across a canopy cover gradient during the severe drought of 2012 and during more typical weather in 2013. We hypothesized that anurans from closed canopy wetlands would have higher Bd prevalence than anurans from open canopy wetlands because high canopy cover would prevent temperatures from exceeding Bd's critical maximum temperature as often. We used occupancy modeling to examine how Bd prevalence varied spatially in relation to environmental covariates, and to determine if weather conditions altered such relationships. We analyzed all common species combined and Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) separately. Bd was widespread among the study wetlands. During the drought year of 2012, however, Bd prevalence and infection intensity were substantially reduced. Although wetland temperatures were related negatively to canopy cover, the influence of canopy cover on Bd was complex. Bd prevalence for Spring Peepers was related positively to canopy cover during the drought, but not in the non-drought year. Bd prevalence for all common species was not related positively to canopy cover in either year. Effects of other environmental covariates, such as water depth, also differed between years. Weather conditions had a large impact on Bd infection patterns, which makes predicting pathogen dynamics difficult. In the Midwest region of the United States, climate change models predict more frequent droughts, which may generally inhibit Bd while also altering the effect of environmental factors such as canopy cover on Bd prevalence for amphibians.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEcosphere
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015

Fingerprint

epidemiology
amphibian
amphibians
drought
canopy
fungus
fungi
wetlands
wetland
weather
pathogen
temperature
infection
pathogen survival
environmental factors
pathogens
forest canopy
population decline
humidity
water depth

Keywords

  • Amphibians
  • Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
  • Canopy cover
  • Chytrid fungus
  • Connectivity
  • Disease
  • Drought
  • Midwest region
  • Occupancy modeling
  • Pseudacris crucifer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Canopy cover and drought influence the landscape epidemiology of an amphibian chytrid fungus. / Beyer, Stacy E.; Phillips, Christopher A; Schooley, Robert Lee.

In: Ecosphere, Vol. 6, No. 5, 01.05.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{4f15764d44fe4be4be6ef975bc4a05ca,
title = "Canopy cover and drought influence the landscape epidemiology of an amphibian chytrid fungus",
abstract = "Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally distributed fungal pathogen of amphibians that has caused amphibian population declines. Prevalence and infection intensity of Bd should vary spatially across heterogeneous landscapes because survival of the pathogen depends on environmental conditions including humidity and temperature. Wetland temperatures should vary with forest canopy cover, but few studies have examined the relationship between Bd prevalence and canopy cover. We sampled anurans for Bd at 33 wetlands in Illinois across a canopy cover gradient during the severe drought of 2012 and during more typical weather in 2013. We hypothesized that anurans from closed canopy wetlands would have higher Bd prevalence than anurans from open canopy wetlands because high canopy cover would prevent temperatures from exceeding Bd's critical maximum temperature as often. We used occupancy modeling to examine how Bd prevalence varied spatially in relation to environmental covariates, and to determine if weather conditions altered such relationships. We analyzed all common species combined and Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) separately. Bd was widespread among the study wetlands. During the drought year of 2012, however, Bd prevalence and infection intensity were substantially reduced. Although wetland temperatures were related negatively to canopy cover, the influence of canopy cover on Bd was complex. Bd prevalence for Spring Peepers was related positively to canopy cover during the drought, but not in the non-drought year. Bd prevalence for all common species was not related positively to canopy cover in either year. Effects of other environmental covariates, such as water depth, also differed between years. Weather conditions had a large impact on Bd infection patterns, which makes predicting pathogen dynamics difficult. In the Midwest region of the United States, climate change models predict more frequent droughts, which may generally inhibit Bd while also altering the effect of environmental factors such as canopy cover on Bd prevalence for amphibians.",
keywords = "Amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Canopy cover, Chytrid fungus, Connectivity, Disease, Drought, Midwest region, Occupancy modeling, Pseudacris crucifer",
author = "Beyer, {Stacy E.} and Phillips, {Christopher A} and Schooley, {Robert Lee}",
year = "2015",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1890/ES14-00263.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
journal = "Ecosphere",
issn = "2150-8925",
publisher = "Ecological Society of America",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Canopy cover and drought influence the landscape epidemiology of an amphibian chytrid fungus

AU - Beyer, Stacy E.

AU - Phillips, Christopher A

AU - Schooley, Robert Lee

PY - 2015/5/1

Y1 - 2015/5/1

N2 - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally distributed fungal pathogen of amphibians that has caused amphibian population declines. Prevalence and infection intensity of Bd should vary spatially across heterogeneous landscapes because survival of the pathogen depends on environmental conditions including humidity and temperature. Wetland temperatures should vary with forest canopy cover, but few studies have examined the relationship between Bd prevalence and canopy cover. We sampled anurans for Bd at 33 wetlands in Illinois across a canopy cover gradient during the severe drought of 2012 and during more typical weather in 2013. We hypothesized that anurans from closed canopy wetlands would have higher Bd prevalence than anurans from open canopy wetlands because high canopy cover would prevent temperatures from exceeding Bd's critical maximum temperature as often. We used occupancy modeling to examine how Bd prevalence varied spatially in relation to environmental covariates, and to determine if weather conditions altered such relationships. We analyzed all common species combined and Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) separately. Bd was widespread among the study wetlands. During the drought year of 2012, however, Bd prevalence and infection intensity were substantially reduced. Although wetland temperatures were related negatively to canopy cover, the influence of canopy cover on Bd was complex. Bd prevalence for Spring Peepers was related positively to canopy cover during the drought, but not in the non-drought year. Bd prevalence for all common species was not related positively to canopy cover in either year. Effects of other environmental covariates, such as water depth, also differed between years. Weather conditions had a large impact on Bd infection patterns, which makes predicting pathogen dynamics difficult. In the Midwest region of the United States, climate change models predict more frequent droughts, which may generally inhibit Bd while also altering the effect of environmental factors such as canopy cover on Bd prevalence for amphibians.

AB - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally distributed fungal pathogen of amphibians that has caused amphibian population declines. Prevalence and infection intensity of Bd should vary spatially across heterogeneous landscapes because survival of the pathogen depends on environmental conditions including humidity and temperature. Wetland temperatures should vary with forest canopy cover, but few studies have examined the relationship between Bd prevalence and canopy cover. We sampled anurans for Bd at 33 wetlands in Illinois across a canopy cover gradient during the severe drought of 2012 and during more typical weather in 2013. We hypothesized that anurans from closed canopy wetlands would have higher Bd prevalence than anurans from open canopy wetlands because high canopy cover would prevent temperatures from exceeding Bd's critical maximum temperature as often. We used occupancy modeling to examine how Bd prevalence varied spatially in relation to environmental covariates, and to determine if weather conditions altered such relationships. We analyzed all common species combined and Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) separately. Bd was widespread among the study wetlands. During the drought year of 2012, however, Bd prevalence and infection intensity were substantially reduced. Although wetland temperatures were related negatively to canopy cover, the influence of canopy cover on Bd was complex. Bd prevalence for Spring Peepers was related positively to canopy cover during the drought, but not in the non-drought year. Bd prevalence for all common species was not related positively to canopy cover in either year. Effects of other environmental covariates, such as water depth, also differed between years. Weather conditions had a large impact on Bd infection patterns, which makes predicting pathogen dynamics difficult. In the Midwest region of the United States, climate change models predict more frequent droughts, which may generally inhibit Bd while also altering the effect of environmental factors such as canopy cover on Bd prevalence for amphibians.

KW - Amphibians

KW - Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

KW - Canopy cover

KW - Chytrid fungus

KW - Connectivity

KW - Disease

KW - Drought

KW - Midwest region

KW - Occupancy modeling

KW - Pseudacris crucifer

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84929376600&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84929376600&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1890/ES14-00263.1

DO - 10.1890/ES14-00263.1

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - Ecosphere

JF - Ecosphere

SN - 2150-8925

IS - 5

ER -