Candidate massive galaxies at z ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey

Pierandrea Guarnieri, Claudia Maraston, Daniel Thomas, Janine Pforr, Violeta Gonzalez-Perez, James Etherington, Joakim Carlsen, Xan Morice-Atkinson, Christopher J. Conselice, Julia Gschwend, Matias Carrasco Kind, Tim Abbott, Sahar Allam, David Brooks, David Burke, Aurelio Carnero Rosell, Jorge Carretero, Carlos Cunha, Chris D'Andrea, Luiz Da CostaJuan De Vincente, Darren DePoy, H. Thomas Diehl, Peter Doel, Josh Frieman, Juan Garcia-Bellido, Daniel Gruen, Gaston Gutierrez, Dominic Hanley, Devon Hollowood, Klaus Honscheid, David James, Tesla Jeltema, Kyler Kuehn, Marcos Lima, Marcio A.G. Maia, Jennifer Marshall, Paul Martini, Peter Melchior, Felipe Menanteau, Ramon Miquel, Andres PlazasMalagon, Samuel Richardson, Kathy Romer, Eusebio Sanchez, Vic Scarpine, Rafe Schindler, Ignacio Sevilla, Mathew Smith, Marcelle Soares-Santos, Flavia Sobreira, Eric Suchyta, Gregory Tarle, Alistair Walker, William Wester

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Using stellar population models, we predicted that the Dark Energy Survey (DES)-due to its special combination of area (5000 deg2) and depth (i = 24.3)-would be in the position to detect massive (1011 M) galaxies at z ∼ 4. We confront those theoretical calculations with the first ∼150 deg2 of DES data reaching nominal depth. From a catalogue containing ∼5 million sources, ∼26 000 were found to have observed-frame g-r versus r-i colours within the locus predicted for z ∼ 4 massive galaxies. We further removed contamination by stars and artefacts, obtaining 606 galaxies lining up by the model selection box. We obtained their photometric redshifts and physical properties by fitting model templates spanning a wide range of star formation histories, reddening and redshift. Key to constrain the models is the addition, to the optical DES bands g, r, i, z, and Y, of near-IR J, H, Ks data from the Vista Hemisphere Survey. We further applied several quality cuts to the fitting results, including goodness of fit and a unimodal redshift probability distribution. We finally select 233 candidates whose photometric redshift probability distribution function peaks around z ∼ 4, have high stellar masses [log (M∗/M) ∼ 11.7 for a Salpeter IMF] and ages around 0.1 Gyr, i.e. formation redshift around 5. These properties match those of the progenitors of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe. This is an ideal sample for spectroscopic followup to select the fraction of galaxies which are truly at high redshift. These initial results and those at the survey completion, which we shall push to higher redshifts, will set unprecedented constraints on galaxy formation, evolution, and the re-ionization epoch.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3060-3081
Number of pages22
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume483
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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dark energy
galaxies
energy
goodness of fit
probability distribution functions
galactic evolution
linings
IMF
loci
hemispheres
stellar mass
catalogs
boxes
artifact
artifacts
star formation
contamination
ionization
templates
universe

Keywords

  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: high-redshift

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Guarnieri, P., Maraston, C., Thomas, D., Pforr, J., Gonzalez-Perez, V., Etherington, J., ... Wester, W. (2019). Candidate massive galaxies at z ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 483(3), 3060-3081. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty3305

Candidate massive galaxies at z ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey. / Guarnieri, Pierandrea; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Pforr, Janine; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Etherington, James; Carlsen, Joakim; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Conselice, Christopher J.; Gschwend, Julia; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Abbott, Tim; Allam, Sahar; Brooks, David; Burke, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Carretero, Jorge; Cunha, Carlos; D'Andrea, Chris; Da Costa, Luiz; De Vincente, Juan; DePoy, Darren; Thomas Diehl, H.; Doel, Peter; Frieman, Josh; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Gruen, Daniel; Gutierrez, Gaston; Hanley, Dominic; Hollowood, Devon; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David; Jeltema, Tesla; Kuehn, Kyler; Lima, Marcos; Maia, Marcio A.G.; Marshall, Jennifer; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Menanteau, Felipe; Miquel, Ramon; PlazasMalagon, Andres; Richardson, Samuel; Romer, Kathy; Sanchez, Eusebio; Scarpine, Vic; Schindler, Rafe; Sevilla, Ignacio; Smith, Mathew; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair; Wester, William.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 483, No. 3, 01.01.2019, p. 3060-3081.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Guarnieri, P, Maraston, C, Thomas, D, Pforr, J, Gonzalez-Perez, V, Etherington, J, Carlsen, J, Morice-Atkinson, X, Conselice, CJ, Gschwend, J, Kind, MC, Abbott, T, Allam, S, Brooks, D, Burke, D, Rosell, AC, Carretero, J, Cunha, C, D'Andrea, C, Da Costa, L, De Vincente, J, DePoy, D, Thomas Diehl, H, Doel, P, Frieman, J, Garcia-Bellido, J, Gruen, D, Gutierrez, G, Hanley, D, Hollowood, D, Honscheid, K, James, D, Jeltema, T, Kuehn, K, Lima, M, Maia, MAG, Marshall, J, Martini, P, Melchior, P, Menanteau, F, Miquel, R, PlazasMalagon, A, Richardson, S, Romer, K, Sanchez, E, Scarpine, V, Schindler, R, Sevilla, I, Smith, M, Soares-Santos, M, Sobreira, F, Suchyta, E, Tarle, G, Walker, A & Wester, W 2019, 'Candidate massive galaxies at z ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 483, no. 3, pp. 3060-3081. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty3305
Guarnieri P, Maraston C, Thomas D, Pforr J, Gonzalez-Perez V, Etherington J et al. Candidate massive galaxies at z ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2019 Jan 1;483(3):3060-3081. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty3305
Guarnieri, Pierandrea ; Maraston, Claudia ; Thomas, Daniel ; Pforr, Janine ; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta ; Etherington, James ; Carlsen, Joakim ; Morice-Atkinson, Xan ; Conselice, Christopher J. ; Gschwend, Julia ; Kind, Matias Carrasco ; Abbott, Tim ; Allam, Sahar ; Brooks, David ; Burke, David ; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero ; Carretero, Jorge ; Cunha, Carlos ; D'Andrea, Chris ; Da Costa, Luiz ; De Vincente, Juan ; DePoy, Darren ; Thomas Diehl, H. ; Doel, Peter ; Frieman, Josh ; Garcia-Bellido, Juan ; Gruen, Daniel ; Gutierrez, Gaston ; Hanley, Dominic ; Hollowood, Devon ; Honscheid, Klaus ; James, David ; Jeltema, Tesla ; Kuehn, Kyler ; Lima, Marcos ; Maia, Marcio A.G. ; Marshall, Jennifer ; Martini, Paul ; Melchior, Peter ; Menanteau, Felipe ; Miquel, Ramon ; PlazasMalagon, Andres ; Richardson, Samuel ; Romer, Kathy ; Sanchez, Eusebio ; Scarpine, Vic ; Schindler, Rafe ; Sevilla, Ignacio ; Smith, Mathew ; Soares-Santos, Marcelle ; Sobreira, Flavia ; Suchyta, Eric ; Tarle, Gregory ; Walker, Alistair ; Wester, William. / Candidate massive galaxies at z ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2019 ; Vol. 483, No. 3. pp. 3060-3081.
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abstract = "Using stellar population models, we predicted that the Dark Energy Survey (DES)-due to its special combination of area (5000 deg2) and depth (i = 24.3)-would be in the position to detect massive (1011 M) galaxies at z ∼ 4. We confront those theoretical calculations with the first ∼150 deg2 of DES data reaching nominal depth. From a catalogue containing ∼5 million sources, ∼26 000 were found to have observed-frame g-r versus r-i colours within the locus predicted for z ∼ 4 massive galaxies. We further removed contamination by stars and artefacts, obtaining 606 galaxies lining up by the model selection box. We obtained their photometric redshifts and physical properties by fitting model templates spanning a wide range of star formation histories, reddening and redshift. Key to constrain the models is the addition, to the optical DES bands g, r, i, z, and Y, of near-IR J, H, Ks data from the Vista Hemisphere Survey. We further applied several quality cuts to the fitting results, including goodness of fit and a unimodal redshift probability distribution. We finally select 233 candidates whose photometric redshift probability distribution function peaks around z ∼ 4, have high stellar masses [log (M∗/M) ∼ 11.7 for a Salpeter IMF] and ages around 0.1 Gyr, i.e. formation redshift around 5. These properties match those of the progenitors of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe. This is an ideal sample for spectroscopic followup to select the fraction of galaxies which are truly at high redshift. These initial results and those at the survey completion, which we shall push to higher redshifts, will set unprecedented constraints on galaxy formation, evolution, and the re-ionization epoch.",
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T1 - Candidate massive galaxies at z ∼ 4 in the Dark Energy Survey

AU - Guarnieri, Pierandrea

AU - Maraston, Claudia

AU - Thomas, Daniel

AU - Pforr, Janine

AU - Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta

AU - Etherington, James

AU - Carlsen, Joakim

AU - Morice-Atkinson, Xan

AU - Conselice, Christopher J.

AU - Gschwend, Julia

AU - Kind, Matias Carrasco

AU - Abbott, Tim

AU - Allam, Sahar

AU - Brooks, David

AU - Burke, David

AU - Rosell, Aurelio Carnero

AU - Carretero, Jorge

AU - Cunha, Carlos

AU - D'Andrea, Chris

AU - Da Costa, Luiz

AU - De Vincente, Juan

AU - DePoy, Darren

AU - Thomas Diehl, H.

AU - Doel, Peter

AU - Frieman, Josh

AU - Garcia-Bellido, Juan

AU - Gruen, Daniel

AU - Gutierrez, Gaston

AU - Hanley, Dominic

AU - Hollowood, Devon

AU - Honscheid, Klaus

AU - James, David

AU - Jeltema, Tesla

AU - Kuehn, Kyler

AU - Lima, Marcos

AU - Maia, Marcio A.G.

AU - Marshall, Jennifer

AU - Martini, Paul

AU - Melchior, Peter

AU - Menanteau, Felipe

AU - Miquel, Ramon

AU - PlazasMalagon, Andres

AU - Richardson, Samuel

AU - Romer, Kathy

AU - Sanchez, Eusebio

AU - Scarpine, Vic

AU - Schindler, Rafe

AU - Sevilla, Ignacio

AU - Smith, Mathew

AU - Soares-Santos, Marcelle

AU - Sobreira, Flavia

AU - Suchyta, Eric

AU - Tarle, Gregory

AU - Walker, Alistair

AU - Wester, William

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Using stellar population models, we predicted that the Dark Energy Survey (DES)-due to its special combination of area (5000 deg2) and depth (i = 24.3)-would be in the position to detect massive (1011 M) galaxies at z ∼ 4. We confront those theoretical calculations with the first ∼150 deg2 of DES data reaching nominal depth. From a catalogue containing ∼5 million sources, ∼26 000 were found to have observed-frame g-r versus r-i colours within the locus predicted for z ∼ 4 massive galaxies. We further removed contamination by stars and artefacts, obtaining 606 galaxies lining up by the model selection box. We obtained their photometric redshifts and physical properties by fitting model templates spanning a wide range of star formation histories, reddening and redshift. Key to constrain the models is the addition, to the optical DES bands g, r, i, z, and Y, of near-IR J, H, Ks data from the Vista Hemisphere Survey. We further applied several quality cuts to the fitting results, including goodness of fit and a unimodal redshift probability distribution. We finally select 233 candidates whose photometric redshift probability distribution function peaks around z ∼ 4, have high stellar masses [log (M∗/M) ∼ 11.7 for a Salpeter IMF] and ages around 0.1 Gyr, i.e. formation redshift around 5. These properties match those of the progenitors of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe. This is an ideal sample for spectroscopic followup to select the fraction of galaxies which are truly at high redshift. These initial results and those at the survey completion, which we shall push to higher redshifts, will set unprecedented constraints on galaxy formation, evolution, and the re-ionization epoch.

AB - Using stellar population models, we predicted that the Dark Energy Survey (DES)-due to its special combination of area (5000 deg2) and depth (i = 24.3)-would be in the position to detect massive (1011 M) galaxies at z ∼ 4. We confront those theoretical calculations with the first ∼150 deg2 of DES data reaching nominal depth. From a catalogue containing ∼5 million sources, ∼26 000 were found to have observed-frame g-r versus r-i colours within the locus predicted for z ∼ 4 massive galaxies. We further removed contamination by stars and artefacts, obtaining 606 galaxies lining up by the model selection box. We obtained their photometric redshifts and physical properties by fitting model templates spanning a wide range of star formation histories, reddening and redshift. Key to constrain the models is the addition, to the optical DES bands g, r, i, z, and Y, of near-IR J, H, Ks data from the Vista Hemisphere Survey. We further applied several quality cuts to the fitting results, including goodness of fit and a unimodal redshift probability distribution. We finally select 233 candidates whose photometric redshift probability distribution function peaks around z ∼ 4, have high stellar masses [log (M∗/M) ∼ 11.7 for a Salpeter IMF] and ages around 0.1 Gyr, i.e. formation redshift around 5. These properties match those of the progenitors of the most massive galaxies in the local Universe. This is an ideal sample for spectroscopic followup to select the fraction of galaxies which are truly at high redshift. These initial results and those at the survey completion, which we shall push to higher redshifts, will set unprecedented constraints on galaxy formation, evolution, and the re-ionization epoch.

KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: high-redshift

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