Calderón multiplicative preconditioned EFIE with perturbation method

Sheng Sun, Yang G. Liu, Weng Cho Chew, Zuhui Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we address the low-frequency breakdown and inaccuracy problems in the Calderón multiplicative preconditioned electric field integral equation (CMP-EFIE) operator, and propose the perturbation method as a remedy for three-dimensional perfect electric conductor (PEC) scatterers. The electric currents at different frequency orders as a power series can be obtained accurately in a recursive manner by solving the same matrix system with updated right hand side vectors. This method does not either require a search for the loops in the loop-tree/-star based method or include charge as additional unknown in the augmented EFIE method. Numerical examples show the far-field pattern can be accurately computed at extremely low frequencies by the proposed perturbation method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6308710
Pages (from-to)247-255
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP)
  • electric field integral equation (EFIE)
  • low-frequency breakdown
  • low-frequency inaccuracy
  • perturbation method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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