Calcined schist as promising ordinary Portland cement substitution: C3

Pozhhan Mokhtari, Kosar Hassannezhad, Sorour Semsari Parapari, Yasemin Akyol, Mehmet Ali Gülgün, Waltraud M. Kriven

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An effective method to make cement and concrete more sustainable is to blend them with the proper supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). This study evaluates a pair of schist-type materials with slightly different phase compositions, as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Materials received from several mines in ground powder form were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy. According to the TGA results, the activation procedures for the candidate SCMs were determined. The as-received powders were heat treated in three different decomposition regimes (30%, 50%, and 80% of the total weight losses during thermal decomposition). These regimes corresponded to the activation level of the potential SCMs due to the de-hydroxylation of the clay-type minerals within them. Pozzolanic reactivity (pozzolanicity) of untreated as well as treated powders were estimated via electrical conductivity measurements in saturated calcium hydroxide solution. Blended cement pastes with 30 wt.% of OPC substituted with calcined clay-type materials have developed mechanical properties equal to those of pure cement (100 wt.% OPC) paste after 28 days of hydration time. Two blended cement pastes prepared with candidate SCMs were compared to 100% OPC and OPC composite paste with metakaolin, which is regarded in the literature as a standard.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere10207
JournalInternational Journal of Ceramic Engineering and Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • calcined schist
  • carbonate
  • cement substitute
  • pozzalanic activity
  • pozzolanicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)


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