Bulk locality from modular flow

Thomas Faulkner, Aitor Lewkowycz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We study the reconstruction of bulk operators in the entanglement wedge in terms of low energy operators localized in the respective boundary region. To leading order in N, the dual boundary operators are constructed from the modular flow of single trace operators in the boundary subregion. The appearance of modular evolved boundary operators can be understood due to the equality between bulk and boundary modular flows and explicit formulas for bulk operators can be found with a complete understanding of the action of bulk modular flow, a difficult but in principle solvable task. We also obtain an expression when the bulk operator is located on the Ryu-Takayanagi surface which only depends on the bulk to boundary correlator and does not require the explicit use of bulk modular flow. This expression generalizes the geodesic operator/OPE block dictionary to general states and boundary regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number151
JournalJournal of High Energy Physics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


  • AdS-CFT Correspondence
  • Conformal Field Theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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