Sustainable transportation is vital to ensure a future that preserves all three aspects of the triple bottom line: environment, economy, and society. The transportation sector is responsible for approximately 28% of total energy consumption in the U.S. and 14% of global greenhouse gases emissions. While the majority of these environmental impacts are emitted from vehicles, infrastructure also plays a large role in the environmental footprint of the transportation sector with direct implications on the vehicles traversing it. The future of pavement engineering and sustainability must be holistic. Thus, the pursuit of a sustainable pavement system requires a life-cycle approach, where each life-cycle stage can be defined, evaluated, and optimized with respect to its engineering durability and environmental impacts. In this presentation, the life-cycle stages of pavement systems with emphasis on durability will be discussed, including the environmental impacts of using innovative techniques and more efficient processes at each stage to quantify and identify sustainable strategies. The pavement use stage is the most complex of the life-cycle stages and includes the relationship between tire characteristics, vehicle, and pavement. Building long-lasting pavement, its performance, and rolling resistance are directly related to fuel consumptions and resulted emission.