Breast cancer in men: Risk factors with hormonal implications

David B. Thomas, L. Margarita Jimenez, Anne Mctieman, Karin Rosenblatt, Helge Stalsberg, Annette Stemhagen, W. Douglas Thompson, Mary G. Mccrea Curnen, William Satariano, Donald F. Austin, Raymond S. Greenberg, Charles Key, Laurence N. Kolonel, Dee W. West

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cases included in a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in men were recruited from 10 geographic areas of the United States from 1983 to 1986. Controls, matched to cases on age and geographic area, were selected by random digit dialing for men under age 65 years and from Health Care Financing Administration files for older men. Results are based on responses from 227 cases and 300 controls to questions asked in a standardized personal interview. An increased risk of breast cancer was most strongly associated with undescended testes and was also related to orchiectomy, orchitis, testjcular injury, late puberty, and infertility; and a decreasing trend in risk was observed with an increasing number of children. Relative risk estimates were also elevated in relation to a history of high blood cholesterol, rapid weight gain, benign breast conditions, and possibly obesity. These findings suggest that breast cancer in men develops in response to androgen deficiency associated with testicular dysfunction and under conditions associated with excess estrogen. Risk was also found to be elevated in men with a history of amphetamine use, diabetes, and cigar smoking and reduced in men with prior head trauma. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:734-48.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)734-748
Number of pages15
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • Breast neoplasms
  • Cryptorchism
  • Testicular diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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