Branched-chain amino acid supplementation alters the abundance of mechanistic target of rapamycin and insulin signaling proteins in subcutaneous adipose explants from lactating Holstein cows

Yusheng Liang, Fabiana F. Cardoso, Claudia Parys, Felipe C. Cardoso, Juan J. Loor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate changes in protein abundance of mTOR and insulin signaling pathway components along with amino acid (AA) transporters in bovine s.c. adipose (SAT) explants in response to increased supply of Leu, Ile, or Val. Explants of SAT from four lactating Holstein cows were incubated with high-glucose serum-free DMEM, to which the 10 essential AAs were added to create the following treatments: ideal mix of essential AA (IPAA; Lys:Met 2.9:1; Lys:Thr 1.8:1; Lys:His 2.38:1; Lys:Val 1.23:1; Lys:Ile 1.45:1; Lys:Leu 0.85:1; Lys:Arg 2.08:1) or IPAA supplemented with Ile, Val, or Leu to achieve a Lys:Ile of 1.29:1 (incIle), Lys:Val 1.12:1 (incVal), or Lys:Leu (incLeu) 0.78:1 for 4 h. Compared with IPAA, incLeu or incIle led to greater activation of protein kinase B (AKT; p-AKT/total AKT) and mTOR (p-mTOR/total mTOR). Total EAA in media averaged 7.8 ± 0.06 mmol/L across treatments. Incubation with incLeu, incIle, or incVal led to greater protein abundance of solute carrier family 38 member 1 (SLC38A1), a Gln transporter, and the BCAA catabolism enzyme branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK) compared with IPAA. Activation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2; p-eEF2/total eEF2) was also greater in response to incLeu, incIle, or incVal. Furthermore, compared with incLeu or incIle, incVal supplementation led to greater abundance of SLC38A1 and BCKDK. BCKDK is a rate-limiting enzyme regulating BCAA catabolism via inactivation and phosphorylation of the BCKD complex. Overall, data suggested that enhanced individual supplementation of BCAA activates mTOR and insulin signaling in SAT. Increased AA transport into tissue and lower BCAA catabolism could be part of the mechanism driving these responses. The potential practical applications for enhancing post-ruminal supply of BCAA via feeding in rumen-protected form support in vivo studies to ascertain the role of these AAs on adipose tissue biology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2714
JournalAnimals
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • Adipose tissue
  • Insulin signaling
  • Leucine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

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