Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease in the United States of America at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface

Nelda A. Rivera, Csaba Varga, Mark G. Ruder, Sheena J. Dorak, Alfred L. Roca, Jan E. Novakofski, Nohra E. Mateus-Pinilla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) cases have increased worldwide, causing significant economic loss to ruminant livestock production and detrimental effects to susceptible wildlife populations. In recent decades, hemorrhagic disease cases have been reported over expanding geographic areas in the United States. Effective BT and EHD prevention and control strategies for livestock and monitoring of these diseases in wildlife populations depend on an accurate understanding of the distribution of BT and EHD viruses in domestic and wild ruminants and their vectors, the Culicoides biting midges that transmit them. However, national maps showing the distribution of BT and EHD viruses and the presence of Culicoides vectors are incomplete or not available at all. Thus, efforts to accurately describe the potential risk of these viruses on ruminant populations are obstructed by the lack of systematic and routine surveillance of their hosts and vectors. In this review, we: (1) outline animal health impacts of BT and EHD in the USA; (2) describe current knowledge of the distribution and abundance of BT and EHD and their vectors in the USA; and (3) highlight the importance of disease (BT and EHD) and vector surveillance for ruminant populations.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number915
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • BTV
  • Culicoides midges
  • EHDV
  • Epidemiology
  • Hemorrhagic disease
  • Orbiviruses
  • Reassortment
  • Serotypes
  • Surveillance
  • Vector
  • White-tailed deer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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