Biosynthesis of Macrocyclic Peptides with C‑Terminal β‑Amino-α-keto Acid Groups by Three Different Metalloenzymes

Dinh T. Nguyen, Lingyang Zhu, Danielle L. Gray, Toby J. Woods, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Kristen M. Flatt, Douglas A. Mitchell, Wilfred A. van der Donk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Advances in genome sequencing and bioinformatics methods have identified a myriad of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding uncharacterized molecules. By mining genomes for BGCs containing a prevalent peptide-binding domain used for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), we uncovered a new compound class involving modifications installed by a cytochrome P450, a multinuclear iron-dependent non-heme oxidative enzyme (MNIO, formerly DUF692), a cobalamin- and radical Sadenosyl-L-methionine-dependent enzyme (B12-rSAM), and a methyltransferase. All enzymes were functionally expressed in Burkholderia sp. FERM BP-3421. Structural characterization demonstrated that the P450 enzyme catalyzed the formation of a biaryl C−C cross-link between two Tyr residues with the B12-rSAM generating β-methyltyrosine. The MNIO transformed a C-terminal Asp residue into aminopyruvic acid, while the methyltransferase acted on the β-carbon of this α-keto acid. Exciton-coupled circular dichroism spectroscopy and microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED) were used to elucidate the stereochemical configuration of the atropisomer formed upon biaryl cross-linking. To the best of our knowledge, the MNIO featured in this pathway is the first to modify a residue other than Cys. This study underscores the utility of genome mining to isolate new macrocyclic RiPPs biosynthesized via previously undiscovered enzyme chemistry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1022-1032
Number of pages11
JournalACS Central Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 22 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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