Thioamidation as a posttranslational modification is exceptionally rare, with only a few reported natural products and exactly one known protein example (methyl-coenzyme M reductase from methane-metabolizing archaea). Recently, there has been significant progress in elucidating the biosynthesis and function of several thioamide-containing natural compounds. Separate developments in the chemical installation of thioamides into peptides and proteins have enabled cell biology and biophysical studies to advance the current understanding of natural thioamides. This review highlights the various strategies used by Nature to install thioamides in peptidic scaffolds and the potential functions of this rare but important modification. We also discuss synthetic methods used for the site-selective incorporation of thioamides into polypeptides with a brief discussion of the physicochemical implications. This account will serve as a foundation for the further study of thioamides in natural products and their various applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine