The discipline of biological design has a relatively short history, but has undergone very rapid expansion and development over that time. This Progress Report outlines the evolution of this field from biomimicry to biofabrication to biohybrid systems’ design, showcasing how each subfield incorporates bioinspired dynamic adaptation into engineered systems. Ethical implications of biological design are discussed, with an emphasis on establishing responsible practices for engineering non-natural or hypernatural functional behaviors in biohybrid systems. This report concludes with recommendations for implementing biological design into educational curricula, ensuring effective and responsible practices for the next generation of engineers and scientists.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1700496
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 25 2017


  • bioactuators
  • biofabrication
  • biohybrids
  • biomimicry
  • smart materials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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