Biokinetic Analysis and Metabolic Fate of 2,4-D in 2,4-D-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max)

Joshua J. Skelton, David M. Simpson, Mark A. Peterson, Dean E. Riechers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Enlist weed control system allows the use of 2,4-D in soybean but slight necrosis in treated leaves may be observed in the field. The objectives of this research were to measure and compare uptake, translocation, and metabolism of 2,4-D in Enlist (E, resistant) and non-AAD-12 transformed (NT, sensitive) soybeans. The adjuvant from the Enlist Duo herbicide formulation (ADJ) increased 2,4-D uptake (36%) and displayed the fastest rate of uptake (U50= 0.2 h) among treatments. E soybean demonstrated a faster rate of 2,4-D metabolism (M50= 0.2 h) compared to NT soybean, but glyphosate did not affect 2,4-D metabolism. Metabolites of 2,4-D in E soybean were qualitatively different than NT. Applying 2,4-D-ethylhexyl ester instead of 2,4-D choline (a quaternary ammonium salt) eliminated visual injury to E soybean, likely due to the time required for initial de-esterification and bioactivation. Excessive 2,4-D acid concentrations in E soybean resulting from ADJ-increased uptake may significantly contribute to foliar injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5847-5859
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number29
StatePublished - Jul 26 2017


  • 2,4-D
  • Enlist crops
  • Glycine max (L.) Merr
  • absorption
  • dichlorophenol
  • herbicide metabolism
  • synthetic auxins
  • translocation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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