Biogenesis of non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) and nsp1-mediated type I interferon modulation in arteriviruses

Mingyuan Han, Chi Yong Kim, Raymond R.R. Rowland, Ying Fang, Daewoo Kim, Dongwan Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Type I interferons (IFNs-α/β) play a key role for the antiviral state of host, and the porcine arterivirus; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), has been shown to down-regulate the production of IFNs during infection. Non-structural protein (nsp) 1 of PRRSV has been identified as a viral IFN antagonist, and the nsp1α subunit of nsp1 has been shown to degrade the CREB-binding protein (CBP) and to inhibit the formation of enhanceosome thus resulting in the suppression of IFN production. The study was expanded to other member viruses in the family Arteriviridae: equine arteritis virus (EAV), murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). While PRRSV-nsp1 and LDV-nsp1 were auto-cleaved to produce the nsp1α and nsp1β subunits, EAV-nsp1 remained uncleaved. SHFV-nsp1 was initially predicted to be cleaved to generate three subunits (nsp1α, nsp1β, and nsp1γ), but only two subunits were generated as SHFV-nsp1αβ and SHFV-nsp1γ. The papain-like cysteine protease (PLP) 1α motif in nsp1α remained inactive for SHFV, and only the PLP1β motif of nsp1β was functional to generate SHFV-nsp1γ subunit. All subunits of arterivirus nsp1 were localized in the both nucleus and cytoplasm, but PRRSV-nsp1β, LDV-nsp1β, EAV-nsp1, and SHFV-nsp1γ were predominantly found in the nucleus. All subunits of arterivirus nsp1 contained the IFN suppressive activity and inhibited both interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB mediated IFN promoter activities. Similar to PRRSV-nsp1α, CBP degradation was evident in cells expressing LDV-nsp1α and SHFV-nsp1γ, but no such degradation was observed for EAV-nsp1. Regardless of CBP degradation, all subunits of arterivirus nsp1 suppressed the IFN-sensitive response element (ISRE)-promoter activities. Our data show that the nsp1-mediated IFN modulation is a common strategy for all arteriviruses but their mechanism of action may differ from each other.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)136-150
Number of pages15
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Arteriviridae
  • CBP degradation
  • EAV
  • IFN antagonism
  • LDV
  • Nsp1
  • SHFV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology


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