Bioencapsulation is a feasible method of terbinafine administration in Emydomyces testavorans-infected western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata)

Anthony J. Cerreta, Jennifer M. Reinhart, Lauren R. Forsythe, Matthew R. O’connor, Karisa N. Tang, Sherry Cox, Krista A. Keller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered to western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) via oral gavage and bioencapsulated in earthworms. ANIMALS 7 western pond turtles. PROCEDURES A randomized complete crossover single-dose pharmacokinetic study was performed. Compounded terbinafine (25 mg/mL; 30 mg/kg) was administered through oral gavage (OG) directly into the stomach or bioencapsu-lated (BEC) into an earthworm vehicle. Blood (0.2 mL) was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after administration. Plasma terbinafine levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS Peak plasma terbinafine concentrations of 786.9 ± 911 ng/mL and 1,022.2 ± 911 were measured at 1.8 ± 2.8 and 14.1 ± 12.3 hours after OG and BEC administration, respectively. There was a significant (P = .031) increase in area under the curve with BEC compared to OG. Using steady-state predictions, with once-daily terbinafine administra-tion, 3/7 and 7/7 turtles had plasma concentrations persistently greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Emydomyces testavorans for the OG and BEC administration routes of administration, respectively. With administration every 48 hours, 3/7 turtles for the OG phase and 6/7 turtles for the BEC phase had concentrations greater than the E. testavorans MIC throughout the entire dosing interval. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of terbinafine (30 mg/kg) every 24 or 48 hours via earthworm bioencapsulation in western pond turtles may be appropriate for the treatment of shell lesions caused by E. testavorans. Clinical studies are needed to assess the efficacy of treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican journal of veterinary research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary


Dive into the research topics of 'Bioencapsulation is a feasible method of terbinafine administration in Emydomyces testavorans-infected western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this