Biocrude production and heavy metal migration during hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure

Jianwen Lu, Jamison Watson, Jianli Zeng, Hugang Li, Zhangbing Zhu, Meng Wang, Yuanhui Zhang, Zhidan Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The production of swine manure has increased constantly with the continuing development of the livestock industry. Swine manure contains a large amount of nutrients, heavy metals, and pathogens, which may cause severe environmental pollution when released into the environment without proper treatment. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) has been recognized as a promising technology to degrade wet biowaste and recovery energy in the form of biocrude oil. This study investigated the effects of the operational parameters, including the temperature (220–370 °C), the retention time (0–90 min) and the total solid content (TS) (10–30%) on the HTL of swine manure. The volatile solid (VS) removal rate of swine manure reached up to around 90%, whereas the highest biocrude oil yield was 25.58% (based on dry biomass). FT-IR analysis indicated that the biocrude oil mainly consisted of esters, acids, aldehydes and hydrocarbon compounds. The results of elemental distribution showed that over 70% of the heavy metal elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb and Cd) were accumulated in the solid residue. This study provides a basic depiction of energy recovery and the mitigation of environmental concerns when utilizing swine manure as a feedstock for HTL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)108-115
Number of pages8
JournalProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
StatePublished - Apr 2018


  • Biocrude oil
  • Heavy metals
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction
  • Solid residue
  • Swine manure
  • Waste treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


Dive into the research topics of 'Biocrude production and heavy metal migration during hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this