Bioconjugated quantum dots for multiplexed and quantitative immunohistochemistry

Yun Xing, Qaiser Chaudry, Christopher Shen, Koon Yin Kong, Haiyen E. Zhau, Leland W. Chung, John A. Petros, Ruth M. O'Regan, Maksym V. Yezhelyev, Jonathan W. Simons, May D. Wang, Shuming Nie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bioconjugated quantum dots (QDs) provide a new class of biological labels for evaluating biomolecular signatures (biomarkers) on intact cells and tissue specimens. In particular, the use of multicolor QD probes in immunohistochemistry is considered one of the most important and clinically relevant applications. At present, however, clinical applications of QD-based immunohistochemistry have achieved only limited success. A major bottleneck is the lack of robust protocols to define the key parameters and steps. Here, we describe our recent experience, preliminary results and detailed protocols for QD-antibody conjugation, tissue specimen preparation, multicolor QD staining, image processing and biomarker quantification. The results demonstrate that bioconjugated QDs can be used for multiplexed profiling of molecular biomarkers, and ultimately for correlation with disease progression and response to therapy. In general, QD bioconjugation is completed within 1 day, and multiplexed molecular profiling takes 1-3 days depending on the number of biomarkers and QD probes used.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1152-1165
Number of pages14
JournalNature Protocols
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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