Bifunctional and Synergistic Catalysis: Lewis Acid Catalysis and Lewis Base-Assisted Bond Polarization (n → σ*)

Won Jin Chung, Scott E. Denmark

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


One of the unique features of Lewis base catalysis is the capability of enhancing both nucleophilic and electrophilic characters within a molecule either through polarization or ionization of bonds upon coordination of a Lewis base onto the substrate. This chapter suggests to use either 'double activation catalysis' if both agents are acting on a single substrate or 'synergistic catalysis' if each agent activates a separate substrate. However, it is always possible that the Lewis base may simply serve as a ligand for the Lewis acid, which would constitute Lewis base activation of a Lewis acid. The chapter presents several leading accomplishments on the successful development of bifunctional or synergistic catalysis with mechanistic discussion as well as compilations of formally composed systems. The scope will be limited to the examples involving n Λ a*Lewis base activation, which is widely utilized for the addition of silylated nucleophiles to C=O or C=N double bonds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLewis Base Catalysis in Organic Synthesis
Number of pages46
ISBN (Electronic)9783527675142
ISBN (Print)9783527336180
StatePublished - Aug 17 2016


  • Aldimines
  • Allyltrimethoxysilane
  • Aluminum-BINOL complex
  • Ammonium fluorides
  • Bifunctional catalysis (Lewis acid-Lewis base
  • Conjugate addition
  • Copper(I) enolate
  • Cyanohydrin
  • Diastereoconvergent
  • Double activation catalysis
  • Fluoride activation
  • Hosomi-Sakurai allylation
  • Ketimines
  • Lanthanide complexes
  • Lewis acid-Brønsted base)
  • Lewis base activation
  • Metallodienolate
  • Mukaiyama-Mannich reaction
  • Mukaiyama-aldol reaction
  • N -acylaziridines
  • N -acylpyrroles
  • N -acylquinolinium salts
  • N -heterocyclic carbene complex
  • N → σ
  • Nonlinear effect
  • Oxazaborolidinium salts
  • Phosphine oxide
  • Quinoline
  • Reissert reaction
  • Salen complexes
  • Silver(I) salts
  • Silylcyanation
  • Strecker reaction
  • Sulfonium fluorides
  • Synergistic catalysis
  • Trimethylsilyl cyanide
  • α; β-unsaturated δ-lactones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)


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