Biclustering of Log Data: Insights from a Computer-Based Complex Problem Solving Assessment

Xin Xu, Susu Zhang, Jinxin Guo, Tao Xin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Computer-based assessments provide the opportunity to collect a new source of behavioral data related to the problem-solving process, known as log file data. To understand the behavioral patterns that can be uncovered from these process data, many studies have employed clustering methods. In contrast to one-mode clustering algorithms, this study utilized biclustering methods, enabling simultaneous classification of test takers and features extracted from log files. By applying the biclustering algorithms to the “Ticket” task in the PISA 2012 CPS assessment, we evaluated the potential of biclustering algorithms in identifying and interpreting homogeneous biclusters from the process data. Compared with one-mode clustering algorithms, the biclustering methods could uncover clusters of individuals who are homogeneous on a subset of feature variables, holding promise for gaining fine-grained insights into students’ problem-solving behavior patterns. Empirical results revealed that specific subsets of features played a crucial role in identifying biclusters. Additionally, the study explored the utilization of biclustering on both the action sequence data and timing data, and the inclusion of time-based features enhanced the understanding of students’ action sequences and scores in the context of the analysis.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • log file data
  • timing data
  • process data
  • action sequence
  • PISA
  • biclustering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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