Behaviour of Na implanted into Mo thin films during annealing

Marika Bodegård, Karin Granath, Lars Stolt, Angus Rockett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Na implants have been used to study diffusion of Na in rf diode sputtered Mo thin films used as back contacts for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. The samples were analyzed with secondary ion mass spectrometry before and after vacuum anneals at 420 °C and 550 °C. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used for surface studies. The diffusion of Na within the Mo grains was found to be very slow as indicated by the unchanged shape and position of the implant peak after the anneal. An increased level of Na in the bulk of the Mo layer strongly suggests diffusion of Na out of the soda lime glass substrate into the Mo film. The oxygen content of the rf diode sputtered Mo films was 8 at% as found by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It is suggested that Mo oxide phases are present in the grain boundaries and that these oxides, being intercalation hosts for Na, are responsible for the rapid diffusion and high solubility of Na in the sputter-deposited Mo films.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-208
Number of pages10
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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