Balancing authority area model and its application to the design of adaptive AGC systems

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In this paper, we develop a reduced-order model for synchronous generator dynamics via selective modal analysis. Then, we use this reduced-order model to formulate a balancing authority (BA) area dynamic model. Next, we use the BA area model to design an adaptive automatic generation control (AGC) scheme, with self-tuning gain, that decreases the amount of regulation needed and potentially reduces the associated costs. In particular, we use the BA area model to derive a relationship between the actual frequency response characteristic (AFRC) of the BA area, the area control error, the system frequency, and the total generation. We make use of this relationship to estimate the AFRC online, and set the frequency bias factor equal to the online estimation. As a result, the AGC system is driven by the exact number of MW needed to restore the system frequency and the real power interchange to the desired values. We demonstrate the proposed ideas with a single machine infinite bus, the 9-bus 3-machine Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and a 140-bus 48-machine systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7364298
Pages (from-to)3756-3764
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2016


  • Actual frequency response characteristic
  • adaptive automatic generation control
  • balancing authority area model
  • reduced-order synchronous generator model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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