Autoregressive Neural Network for Simulating Open Quantum Systems via a Probabilistic Formulation

Di Luo, Zhuo Chen, Juan Carrasquilla, Bryan K. Clark

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The theory of open quantum systems lays the foundation for a substantial part of modern research in quantum science and engineering. Rooted in the dimensionality of their extended Hilbert spaces, the high computational complexity of simulating open quantum systems calls for the development of strategies to approximate their dynamics. In this Letter, we present an approach for tackling open quantum system dynamics. Using an exact probabilistic formulation of quantum physics based on positive operator-valued measure, we compactly represent quantum states with autoregressive neural networks; such networks bring significant algorithmic flexibility due to efficient exact sampling and tractable density. We further introduce the concept of string states to partially restore the symmetry of the autoregressive neural network and improve the description of local correlations. Efficient algorithms have been developed to simulate the dynamics of the Liouvillian superoperator using a forward-backward trapezoid method and find the steady state via a variational formulation. Our approach is benchmarked on prototypical one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems, finding results which closely track the exact solution and achieve higher accuracy than alternative approaches based on using Markov chain Monte Carlo method to sample restricted Boltzmann machines. Our Letter provides general methods for understanding quantum dynamics in various contexts, as well as techniques for solving high-dimensional probabilistic differential equations in classical setups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number090501
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number9
StatePublished - Mar 4 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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