Autonomous Strategies for Improved Performance and Reliability of Li-Ion Batteries

Lihong Zhao, Nancy R. Sottos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The battery community has devoted significant effort to improve the performance and reliability of Li-ion batteries through the development of new materials. The integration of autonomous function provides an alternative strategy to further extend performance. Autonomous material systems mimic the ability of biological systems to self-protect, sense, regulate, and heal in response to damage and other environmental changes. When incorporated in batteries, these materials enable autonomic restoration of battery performance upon degradation, as well as autonomic shutdown or extinguishment in response to thermal runaway. Successful strategies for improving Li-ion battery performance include controlled release of microencapsulated functional additives and the integration of self-healing or adaptive interlayers and binders. These methods have been effective for stabilizing the solid electrolyte interface, preventing battery fires, restoring electrode conductivity, and suppressing Li dendrite growth. Challenges and opportunities exist in the further application of autonomous strategies in the battery environment. A greater variety of encapsulated additives with precise triggered-release are needed to address specific battery degradation mechanisms. Incorporation of self-healing polymers in solid-state batteries facilitates improvement in interfacial and mechanical stability. The integration of autonomous strategies with battery management systems potentially enables enhanced control over multiple battery cycling parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2003139
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - Feb 4 2021


  • autonomous strategies
  • battery degradation
  • lithium-ion batteries
  • microcapsules
  • self-healing polymers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science


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