Authentic and hubristic pride: The affective core of self-esteem and narcissism

Jessica L. Tracy, Joey T. Cheng, Richard W. Robins, Kali H. Trzesniewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Do individuals with high self-esteem enjoy positive interpersonal relationships, or are they aggressive and antisocial? Does narcissism reflect an abundance of self-worth, or inflated self-views driven by an overcompensation for low self-esteem? The present research addresses the apparently two-sided nature of self-esteem and narcissism by distinguishing between two distinct self-regulatory processes (narcissistic self-aggrandizement and genuine self-esteem), and proposing that two distinct facets of pride-authentic and hubristic-form the affective core of each. Specifically, findings demonstrate that when narcissistic and genuine self-esteem are empirically distinguished, genuine self-esteem (along with authentic pride) is positively related to successful social relationships and mental health, whereas narcissistic self-aggrandizement (along with hubristic pride) is positively related to aggression and other antisocial behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)196-213
Number of pages18
JournalSelf and Identity
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - 2009


  • Narcissism
  • Pride
  • Self-conscious emotions
  • Self-esteem
  • Self-regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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